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Rosa Damascena Flower Water
(in 1,935 products)

Potential Risk Index®:

ISCE InhaleISCE SwallowISCE ContactISCE Environment
PRI Legend


1. Antioxidant - Reduces oxidation to prevent the formation of free radicals which may be harmful to health.
2. Drug / Medicine - Treats, alleviates, cures, or prevents sickness. As officially declared by a governmental drug/medicine regulatory body
3. Fragrance / Fragrance Component - Provides or enhances a particular smell or odor.
4. Sunscreen - Physical sunscreens work by deflecting or scattering UV rays. Chemical sunscreens work by absorbing and dissipating the UV rays as heat.
Rose oil derived from Rosa Damascena. Rosa Damascena or the Damask rose is a rose hybrid between Rosa Gallica and Rosa Moschata. It has light pink flowers that are used in rose oil and for rosewater. Around 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. [1]
Recent Findings:
Rosa Damascena Flower Oil (R. Damascena) is rich in phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids which are quercetin and kaempferol-based derivatives. [1] There is a high potential for Rosa Damascena to be used in dietary supplements or in pharmaceuticals due to the presence of natural antioxidants. [1][3] The main components of Rosa Damascena flower oil are “citronellol, geraniol and nerol and their corresponding percentages were 10.3%, 28%, and 1.3% in first oil (direct oil obtained from fresh flowers) and 46.7%, 23.3%, 11.9% in second oil (redistillated oil of the first oil), respectively.” [2] However, “citronellol, geraniol and nerol have more potent antimicrobial activity individually than in the mixture form”. [2][4]
Antibacterial Properties
In a study, Rosa Damascena can be used to replace BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) via its antiradical activity: “In comparison with BHT, these data showed that the extracts can be accepted as strong free radical inhibitors and antioxidants.” [3] Where antibacterial activity was detected for both fresh flower extracts and spent flower extracts (extract from flowers that have finished flowering/and are dying off). It was noted that fresh flower extract (10%) was most effective against S. enteritidis, while spent flower extract (10%) was most effective against M. smegmatis. [3] Nerol and phenylethyl alcohol found in Rosa Damascena is also affective against acetylcholinesterase, which may be useful in treating Alzheimer’s Disease. [4]
Inhibition of Hepatotoxicity (Liver toxicity)
Rosa Damascena can also protect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats, “possibly by its free radical scavenging ability”. [5] Rosa Damascena was found to inhibit superoxide radical production, hydroxyl radical generation, and lipid peroxide formation proving that it has potent antioxidant activity. [5] In a separate study, it can also protect against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Swiss albino rats, where it inhibits lipid peroxidation mainly through kaempferol-derivatives found in Rosa Damascena. [6]
UV Protection
Rosa Damascena extracts were mixed with various solvents to form extract-mixtures, all extract-mixtures can effectively absorb UV radiation in the range of 200-400nm, most likely due to the presence of flavonoids. [7][8] Polyphenolics “apparently shielded ultraviolet-sensitive target molecules from damage”, giving Rosa Damascena its antisolar properties. [8] The extract-mixtures were combined with a cream-base to form an experimental sunscreen mixture, where the 5% ether-extract mixture “showed the most desirable appearance and stability among the creams” which “can give the best formulation”. Ether solvent has the “highest ability for extraction of flavonoid compounds”. [7] It was found that along with its antisolar potential, Rosa Damascena also has some other benefits such as cooling, soothing, astringent, and anti-inflammatory effects. [7] In a separate study, a specific Rosa Damascena UV-resistant strain “produced larger quantities of polyphenolic compounds, principally flavonoids” and has “4 times more nonflavonoid polyphenolics and 14 times more flavonoids” than normal. [8] It was also found that Rosa Damascena offered more protection against UV-B than UV-A although more tests will need to be conducted for verification. [8] Meanwhile, other close relatives such as Rosa Hybrida and Fuchsia Hybrida have proven to be fairly effective against UV-A, attributed mainly to “kaempferol and quercetin derivatives”. [9]
Scientific References:
1. Flavonol Glycosides from Distilled Petals of Rosa damascena Mill. (Z. Naturforsch. C, 60(5-6), 379–384. doi:10.1515/znc-2005-5-602)
2. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils. (Arch. Pharm. Res., 25(6), 860–864. doi:10.1007/bf02977005)
3. Note: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Rosa Damascena Flower Extracts. (Food Sci. Technol. Int., 10(4), 277–281. doi:10.1177/1082013204045882)
4. A mechanistic investigation on anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). (Food Res. Int., 53(1), 502–509. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2013.05.031)
5. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Rosa damascena. (Pharm. Biol., 41(5), 357–361. doi:10.1076/phbi.41.5.357.15945)
6. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of the crude ethanolic extract of the flowering top of Rosa damascene (Oriental Pharm. Exp. Med., 8(2), 164-170. doi:10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.2.164)
7. An in vitro evaluation of various Rosa damascena flower extracts as a natural antisolar agent. (Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 25(6), 259–265. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2494.2003.00189.x)
8. A Strain of Rosa damascena Cultured Cells Resistant to Ultraviolet Light. (Plant Physiol., 64(6), 936–941. doi:10.1104/pp.64.6.936)
9. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure. (Physiol. Plant., 117(2), 171–178. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.2003.00037.x)

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