(in 2,729 products)

Potential Risk Index®:

ISCE InhaleISCE SwallowISCE ContactISCE Environment
PRI Legend


1. Anti-caking Agent - Prevents lumps from forming in food due to excess water. They usually function as a water repellent or by absorbing excess moisture.
2. Binder / Stabilizer - Retains the physical characteristics of food/cosmetics and ensure the mixture remains in an even state.
3. Bulking Agent - Non-nutritious or inactive substances added to increase stability of the mixture.
4. Gelling Agent / Thickener - Increases the viscosity by thickening the liquid to give it more texture
5. Humectant - Binds with water to increase skin hydration. Also enhances water absorption of the skin
6. Sweetener - Sugar substitutes which provides a sweet taste without raising blood sugar levels
Chemically, mannitol is an alcohol and a sugar, or a polyol; it is similar to xylitol or sorbitol . However, mannitol has a tendency to lose a hydrogen ion in aqueous solutions, which causes the solution to become acidic. For this reason, it is not uncommon to add a substance to adjust its pH, such as sodium bicarbonate . Mannitol is commonly used to increase urine production (diuretic). It is also used to treat or prevent medical conditions that are caused by an increase in body fluids/ water (e.g., cerebral edema, glaucoma, kidney failure). Mannitol is frequently given along with other diuretics (e.g., furosemide , chlorothiazide ) and/or IV fluid replacement. Mannitol is a naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium , chloride , and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma.
Mannitol is used as a sweetener for people with diabetes, and in chewing gums. It has a E number 421. Although mannitol has a higher heat of solution than most sugar alcohols, its comparatively low solubility reduces the cooling effect usually found in mint candies and gums. However, when mannitol is completely dissolved in a product, it induces a strong cooling effect. Also, it has a very low hygroscopicity – it does not pick up water from the air until the humidity level is 98%. This makes mannitol very useful as a coating for hard candies, dried fruits, and chewing gums, and it is often included as an ingredient in candies and chewing gum. The pleasant taste and mouthfeel of mannitol also makes it a popular excipient for chewable tablets.
It is approved to use as food additive in EU and generally recognized as safe food substance in US.
Scientific References:
Regulatory References:
1. US FDA Food Additives Status List [2018]
2. EU Approved Food Additive [2018]
- E421
3. Japan’s List of Designated Food Additives under Article 10 of the Food Sanitation Act
- D-Mannitol (D-Mannite)
4. US FDA Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Food Substances (21 CFR 184) [2017]

Potential Health Concerns For:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (PubMed ID:11247599)
2. Azotemia (PubMed ID:5087393)
3. Brain Edema (PubMed ID:15519365)
4. Cerebral Hemorrhage (PubMed ID:6411871)
5. Coma (PubMed ID:17333050)
6. Compartment Syndromes (PubMed ID:15462158)
7. Drug Eruptions (PubMed ID:11792017)
8. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions (PubMed ID:11247599)
9. Encephalitis (PubMed ID:6424993)
10. Heart Diseases (PubMed ID:8184141)
11. Hypernatremia (PubMed ID:20804114)
12. Hypokalemia (PubMed ID:20804114)
13. Hyponatremia (PubMed ID:17333050)
14. Hypotension (PubMed ID:10067030)
15. Intracranial Hypertension (PubMed ID:17019386)
16. Kidney Diseases (PubMed ID:10399635)
17. Nephrosis (PubMed ID:5415710)
18. Oliguria (PubMed ID:8529299)
19. Pulmonary Edema (PubMed ID:6781355)
20. Pulmonary Embolism (PubMed ID:6766842)
21. Renal Insufficiency (PubMed ID:3925648)
22. Urticaria (PubMed ID:11792017)
23. Ventricular Fibrillation (PubMed ID:2745010)

Potential Health Benefits For:

1. Acute Lung Injury (PubMed ID:21748612)
2. Brain Ischemia (PubMed ID:6799378)
3. Craniocerebral Trauma (PubMed ID:10067030)
4. Edema (PubMed ID:14718644)
5. Glaucoma (PubMed ID:3106845)
6. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure (PubMed ID:7900744)
7. Glioma (PubMed ID:17019386)
8. Hearing Loss (PubMed ID:9223576)
9. Heart Defects, Congenital (PubMed ID:30864794)
10. Hepatitis (PubMed ID:11182525)
11. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome (PubMed ID:3919450)
12. Ischemic Attack, Transient (PubMed ID:11086739)
13. Meningioma (PubMed ID:17019386)
14. Myocardial Ischemia (PubMed ID:4640943)
15. Necrosis (PubMed ID:11086739)
16. Nervous System Diseases (PubMed ID:2554183)
17. Pericardial Effusion (PubMed ID:30864794)
18. Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (PubMed ID:11862771)
19. Reperfusion Injury (PubMed ID:21748612)
20. Shock (PubMed ID:16302998)
21. Stroke (PubMed ID:2177369)

User Comments:

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