(in 1 products)
Banned by Gov or classified as a carcinogen by IARC

Potential Risk Index®:

ISCE InhaleISCE SwallowISCE ContactISCE Environment
PRI Legend


Lead is a very corrosion-resistant, dense, ductile, and malleable blue-gray metal that has been used for at least 5,000 years. Early uses of lead included building materials, pigments for glazing ceramics, and pipes for transporting water. The castles and cathedrals of Europe contain considerable quantities of lead in decorative fixtures, roofs, pipes, and windows. Prior to the early 1900s, uses of lead in the United States were primarily for ammunition, brass, burial vault liners, ceramic glazes, leaded glass and crystal, paints or other protective coatings, pewter, and water lines and pipes. The advent of the electrical age and communications, which were accelerated by technological developments in World War I, resulted in the addition of bearing metals, cable covering, caulking lead, solders, and type metal to the list of lead uses. With the growth in production of public and private motorized vehicles and the associated use of starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) lead-acid storage batteries and terne metal for gas tanks after World War I, demand for lead increased. Most of these uses for lead continued to increase with the growth in population and the national economy. Contributing to the increase in demand for lead was the use of lead as radiation shielding in medical analysis and video display equipment and as an additive in gasoline. By the mid-1980s, a significant shift in lead end-use patterns had taken place. Much of this shift was a result of the U.S. lead consumers compliance with environmental regulations that significantly reduced or eliminated the use of lead in nonbattery products, including gasoline, paints, solders, and water systems. More recently, as the use of lead in nonbattery products has continued to decline, the demand for lead in SLI-type batteries has continued to grow. In addition, the demand for lead in non-SLI battery applications also has continued to grow. Non-SLI battery applications include motive sources of power for industrial forklifts, airport ground equipment, mining equipment, and a variety of nonroad utility vehicles, as well as stationary sources of power in uninterruptible electric power systems for hospitals, computer and telecommunications networks, and load-leveling equipment for electric utility companies. By the early 2000s, the total demand for lead in all types of lead-acid storage batteries represented 88% of apparent U.S. lead consumption. Other significant uses included ammunition (3%), oxides in glass and ceramics (3%), casting metals (2%), and sheet lead (1%). The remainder was consumed in solders, bearing metals, brass and bronze billets, covering for cable, caulking lead, and extruded products. [1]
This substance has been prohibited by the European Commission for use in cosmetic products.
Scientific References:
Regulatory References:
- Ref: II/289
2. CANADA INGREDIENT HOTLIST, List of Ingredients that are Prohibited for Use in Cosmetic Products [2019]
- Lead and its compounds
3. WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Group 2B [2018]
- Lead
4. US National Toxicology Program (NTP) Report on Carcinogens
- Lead and Lead Compounds
5. US CARB Identified Toxic Air Contaminants
- Inorganic Lead

Safety and Hazards (UN GHS):

1. Harmful if swallowed (H302)
2. Harmful if inhaled (H332)
3. Suspected of causing genetic defects (H341)
4. Suspected of causing cancer (H351)
5. May damage fertility or the unborn child (H360)
6. May damage fertility; May damage the unborn child (H360FD)
7. May cause harm to breast-fed children (H362)
8. Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure (H372)
9. Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure (H373)
10. Very toxic to aquatic life (H400)
11. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects (H410)

Potential Health Concerns For:

1. Abdominal Pain (PubMed ID:30081045)
2. Albuminuria (PubMed ID:19700501)
3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (PubMed ID:20406759)
4. Anemia (PubMed ID:21482638)
5. Anorexia (PubMed ID:30081045)
6. Anxiety Disorders (PubMed ID:20019913)
7. Aortic Diseases (PubMed ID:19167473)
8. Arthralgia (PubMed ID:30081045)
9. Astrocytoma (PubMed ID:26505805)
10. Atherosclerosis (PubMed ID:31808705)
11. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (PubMed ID:20019913)
12. Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (PubMed ID:17384765)
13. Autism Spectrum Disorder (PubMed ID:24284360)
14. Autistic Disorder (PubMed ID:25051312)
15. Birth Weight (PubMed ID:20562053)
16. Bone Diseases (PubMed ID:23086611)
17. Bone Diseases, Developmental (PubMed ID:17805416)
18. Carcinoma, Renal Cell (PubMed ID:21799727)
19. Cardiovascular Diseases (PubMed ID:15569323)
20. Central Nervous System Diseases (PubMed ID:21998611)
21. Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury (PubMed ID:15803060)
22. Child Behavior Disorders (PubMed ID:30732589)
23. Chromosome Aberrations (PubMed ID:17176674)
24. Cognition Disorders (PubMed ID:17311281)
25. Cognitive Dysfunction (PubMed ID:28270159)
26. Conduct Disorder (PubMed ID:18629321)
27. Congenital Abnormalities (PubMed ID:25703175)
28. Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (PubMed ID:18501191)
29. Constipation (PubMed ID:30081045)
30. Coronary Artery Disease (PubMed ID:28431391)
31. Craniofacial Abnormalities (PubMed ID:19769572)
32. Cushing Syndrome (PubMed ID:18977374)
33. Death (PubMed ID:19344498)
34. Dementia (PubMed ID:16140633)
35. Depressive Disorder (PubMed ID:22538241)
36. Dermatitis, Atopic (PubMed ID:31921472)
37. Developmental Disabilities (PubMed ID:17905657)
38. Diabetes Mellitus (PubMed ID:18276029)
39. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (PubMed ID:28347468)
40. Dry Eye Syndromes (PubMed ID:30746909)
41. Dyslipidemias (PubMed ID:21911985)
42. Eczema (PubMed ID:20337961)
43. Erectile Dysfunction (PubMed ID:26723573)
44. Essential Tremor (PubMed ID:14594619)
45. Eye Diseases (PubMed ID:21473382)
46. Fatigue (PubMed ID:30081045)
47. Fatty Liver (PubMed ID:21126940)
48. Feminization (PubMed ID:22300406)
49. Fetal Growth Retardation (PubMed ID:12641193)
50. Genetic Predisposition to Disease (PubMed ID:20123609)
51. Genomic Instability (PubMed ID:32567310)
52. Glucose Intolerance (PubMed ID:25874871)
53. Growth Disorders (PubMed ID:23247522)
54. Headache (PubMed ID:30081045)
55. Hematologic Diseases (PubMed ID:24631795)
56. Hyperglycemia (PubMed ID:26689646)
57. Hyperkinesis (PubMed ID:19433104)
58. Hyperlipidemias (PubMed ID:22001170)
59. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary (PubMed ID:21985997)
60. Hypertension (PubMed ID:10523326)
61. Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced (PubMed ID:20019901)
62. Hypokinesia (PubMed ID:25703175)
63. Hypothyroidism, Autoimmune (PubMed ID:24866691)
64. Immune System Diseases (PubMed ID:21241821)
65. Infertility, Male (PubMed ID:16780224)
66. Insulin Resistance (PubMed ID:22354675)
67. Intellectual Disability (PubMed ID:22300406)
68. Iron Metabolism Disorders (PubMed ID:21458486)
69. Kidney Diseases (PubMed ID:16601012)
70. Kidney Failure, Chronic (PubMed ID:23343055)
71. Lead Poisoning (PubMed ID:10928693)
72. Lead Poisoning, Nervous System (PubMed ID:17823382)
73. Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood (PubMed ID:20019902)
74. Learning Disorders (PubMed ID:16384672)
75. Lethargy (PubMed ID:30081045)
76. Lipidoses (PubMed ID:19056365)
77. Liver Diseases (PubMed ID:24631795)
78. Lung Neoplasms (PubMed ID:15496540)
79. Median Neuropathy (PubMed ID:21439310)
80. Memory Disorders (PubMed ID:16384672)
81. Meningioma (PubMed ID:26091556)
82. Mental Disorders (PubMed ID:17823382)
83. Metabolic Syndrome X (PubMed ID:23302150)
84. Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective (PubMed ID:19938001)
85. Motor Disorders (PubMed ID:26859824)
86. Motor Neuron Disease (PubMed ID:26703636)
87. Motor Skills Disorders (PubMed ID:25451970)
88. Movement Disorders (PubMed ID:21402136)
89. Myalgia (PubMed ID:30081045)
90. Myocardial Infarction (PubMed ID:14515052)
91. Myocardial Ischemia (PubMed ID:26629599)
92. Nausea (PubMed ID:30081045)
93. Neoplasms (PubMed ID:17916923)
94. Nerve Degeneration (PubMed ID:19288233)
95. Nervous System Diseases (PubMed ID:1227852)
96. Neurobehavioral Manifestations (PubMed ID:21124968)
97. Neurodegenerative Diseases (PubMed ID:16717205)
98. Neurodevelopmental Disorders (PubMed ID:25446717)
99. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive (PubMed ID:26505805)
100. Neurogenic Inflammation (PubMed ID:25288670)
101. Neurologic Manifestations (PubMed ID:22184584)
102. Obesity (PubMed ID:28321702)
103. Occupational Diseases (PubMed ID:23084307)
104. Paresis (PubMed ID:30081045)
105. Parkinson Disease (PubMed ID:20807691)
106. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases (PubMed ID:21998611)
107. Peroneal Neuropathies (PubMed ID:21439310)
108. Poisoning (PubMed ID:19696718)
109. Polyneuropathies (PubMed ID:8925321)
110. Porphyrias (PubMed ID:3313115)
111. Premature Birth (PubMed ID:25342170)
112. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PubMed ID:12641193)
113. Prenatal Injuries (PubMed ID:18501191)
114. Prostatic Hyperplasia (PubMed ID:23479318)
115. Proteinuria (PubMed ID:17497640)
116. Psychomotor Disorders (PubMed ID:21592505)
117. Renal Insufficiency (PubMed ID:20014231)
118. Renal Insufficiency, Chronic (PubMed ID:21248295)
119. Seizures (PubMed ID:15149801)
120. Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders (PubMed ID:30081045)
121. Testicular Diseases (PubMed ID:31647946)
122. Tooth Loss (PubMed ID:20019902)
123. Tremor (PubMed ID:21145352)
124. Ulnar Neuropathies (PubMed ID:21439310)
125. Weight Gain (PubMed ID:28123784)

Potential Health Benefits For:

1. Personality Disorders (PubMed ID:573477)

User Comments:

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