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Potential Risk Index®:

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Food Contaminant: METALS
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust.
Iron has many uses, It is used in the type of stainless steel used for making cutlery, and hospital and food-service equipment. It is also used in engineering applications such as the construction of machinery and machine tools, automobiles, the hulls of large ships, and structural components for buildings. Since pure iron is quite soft, it is most commonly combined with alloying elements to make steel.
Iron is pervasive, but particularly rich sources of dietary iron include red meat, oysters, lentils, beans, poultry, fish, leaf vegetables, watercress, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, and blackstrap molasses. Bread and breakfast cereals are sometimes specifically fortified with iron. It is also used as dietary supplement.
Scientific References:
Regulatory References:
1. US FDA Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Food Substances (21 CFR 184) [2017]
- § 184.1375 - Iron, elemental

Potential Health Concerns For:

1. Acute Coronary Syndrome (PubMed ID:15966572)
2. Alzheimer Disease (PubMed ID:15060098)
3. Anemia (PubMed ID:12173702)
4. Anemia, Hemolytic (PubMed ID:5094252)
5. Anemia, Hypochromic (PubMed ID:1243953)
6. Anemia, Iron-Deficiency (PubMed ID:16569441)
7. Anemia, Pernicious (PubMed ID:9314271)
8. Anemia, Sideroblastic (PubMed ID:16910769)
9. Anemia, hypochromic microcytic (PubMed ID:16629162)
10. Arrhythmias, Cardiac (PubMed ID:16604332)
11. Asbestosis (PubMed ID:21979745)
12. Ataxia (PubMed ID:12572680)
13. Ataxia Telangiectasia (PubMed ID:15336622)
14. Atherosclerosis (PubMed ID:16632123)
15. Bacterial Infections (PubMed ID:16640825)
16. Brain Diseases (PubMed ID:17921879)
17. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular (PubMed ID:19229483)
18. Cardiomegaly (PubMed ID:11818034)
19. Cardiomyopathies (PubMed ID:16640825)
20. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated (PubMed ID:16604332)
21. Cardiovascular Diseases (PubMed ID:29467104)
22. Cecal Diseases (PubMed ID:31654707)
23. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic (PubMed ID:23100159)
24. Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 6 (PubMed ID:23516525)
25. Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury (PubMed ID:15674093)
26. Chromosome Aberrations (PubMed ID:17176674)
27. Cognition Disorders (PubMed ID:24402517)
28. Colonic Neoplasms (PubMed ID:16640825)
29. Dementia (PubMed ID:12572680)
30. Diabetes Mellitus (PubMed ID:12572680)
31. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 (PubMed ID:16506275)
32. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (PubMed ID:16506275)
33. Disease Models, Animal (PubMed ID:15911138)
34. Dyskinesias (PubMed ID:12572680)
35. Familial apoceruloplasmin deficiency (PubMed ID:12572680)
36. Fatty Liver (PubMed ID:16640825)
37. Friedreich Ataxia (PubMed ID:16604332)
38. Gastrointestinal Diseases (PubMed ID:1227766)
39. HIV Infections (PubMed ID:16597321)
40. Hair Diseases (PubMed ID:12780714)
41. Heart Diseases (PubMed ID:6211659)
42. Heavy Metal Poisoning (PubMed ID:17060373)
43. Hemochromatosis (PubMed ID:16574947)
44. Hemosiderosis (PubMed ID:16604332)
45. Hepatitis, Viral, Human (PubMed ID:16640825)
46. Hepatolenticular Degeneration (PubMed ID:15911138)
47. Hepatomegaly (PubMed ID:16890145)
48. Huntington Disease (PubMed ID:17396163)
49. Hypogonadism (PubMed ID:16640825)
50. Hypothyroidism (PubMed ID:16640825)
51. Intestinal Diseases (PubMed ID:19540330)
52. Iron Metabolism Disorders (PubMed ID:17163184)
53. Iron Overload (PubMed ID:27481217)
54. Lewy Body Disease (PubMed ID:16563566)
55. Liver Cirrhosis (PubMed ID:16640825)
56. Liver Diseases (PubMed ID:1227766)
57. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic (PubMed ID:16737972)
58. Liver Neoplasms (PubMed ID:16640825)
59. Lung Neoplasms (PubMed ID:16640825)
60. Macular Degeneration (PubMed ID:16640825)
61. Malabsorption Syndromes (PubMed ID:20152742)
62. Manganese Poisoning (PubMed ID:17032702)
63. Mental Disorders (PubMed ID:22340208)
64. Metabolism, Inborn Errors (PubMed ID:23452774)
65. Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive (PubMed ID:17086897)
66. Muscular Diseases (PubMed ID:22479410)
67. Mycoses (PubMed ID:16640825)
68. Myocardial Infarction (PubMed ID:15966572)
69. Myocardial Ischemia (PubMed ID:16604332)
70. Myocardial Reperfusion Injury (PubMed ID:16604332)
71. Neoplasm Invasiveness (PubMed ID:23100159)
72. Neoplasms (PubMed ID:17916923)
73. Nephrotic Syndrome (PubMed ID:17178036)
74. Nerve Degeneration (PubMed ID:10802221)
75. Nervous System Diseases (PubMed ID:23452774)
76. Neurodegenerative Diseases (PubMed ID:15488650)
77. Neurotoxicity Syndromes (PubMed ID:15488650)
78. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (PubMed ID:18505688)
79. Osteoarthritis (PubMed ID:16640825)
80. Osteoporosis (PubMed ID:16640825)
81. Papilloma (PubMed ID:12065085)
82. Parkinson Disease (PubMed ID:11165868)
83. Pituitary Diseases (PubMed ID:16604332)
84. Pneumonia (PubMed ID:22198552)
85. Poisoning (PubMed ID:16604332)
86. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PubMed ID:16640825)
87. Porphyrias, Hepatic (PubMed ID:11475000)
88. Postoperative Complications (PubMed ID:20152742)
89. Pre-Eclampsia (PubMed ID:16640825)
90. Precancerous Conditions (PubMed ID:10222400)
91. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PubMed ID:22340208)
92. Protozoan Infections (PubMed ID:16640825)
93. Restless Legs Syndrome (PubMed ID:16930377)
94. Retinal Degeneration (PubMed ID:12572680)
95. Retinal Diseases (PubMed ID:33285147)
96. Skin Neoplasms (PubMed ID:12065085)
97. Spinal Dysraphism (PubMed ID:15173422)
98. Sudden Infant Death (PubMed ID:16640825)
99. Tuberculosis (PubMed ID:16597321)
100. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left (PubMed ID:16798648)
101. alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency (PubMed ID:16640825)
102. beta-Thalassemia (PubMed ID:6211659)

Potential Health Benefits For:

1. Autistic Disorder (PubMed ID:17352947)
2. Cholestasis (PubMed ID:3945969)
3. Hyperkinesis (PubMed ID:7184034)
4. Parasomnias (PubMed ID:17352947)

User Comments:

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