(in 3,820 products)

Potential Risk Index®:

ISCE InhaleISCE SwallowISCE ContactISCE Environment
PRI Legend


1. Antioxidant - Reduces oxidation to prevent the formation of free radicals which may be harmful to health.
2. Drug / Medicine - Used to treat, alleviate, cure or prevent sickness. As officially declared by a governmental drug/medicine regulatory body
3. Flavor / Flavoring / Flavor Enhancer - Provides or enhances a particular taste or smell.
Caffeine is found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to South America and East Asia. The most well known source of caffeine is the coffee bean, a misnomer for the seed of Coffea plants. Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are very popular.
Caffeine, a naturally occurring xanthine derivative like theobromine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity). Often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids, caffeine is used to treat migraine and other headache types. Over the counter, caffeine is available to treat drowsiness or mild water-weight gain.
Caffeine is a methylxanthine alkaloid found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to South America and East Asia that is structurally related to adenosine and acts primarily as an adenosine receptor antagonist with psychotropic and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon ingestion, caffeine binds to adenosine receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), which inhibits adenosine binding. This inhibits the adenosine -mediated downregulation of CNS activity; thus, stimulating the activity of the medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain. This agent also promotes neurotransmitter release that further stimulates the CNS. The anti-inflammatory effects of caffeine are due the nonselective competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Inhibition of PDEs raises the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP ( cAMP ), activates protein kinase A, and inhibits leukotriene synthesis, which leads to reduced inflammation and innate immunity.
Scientific References:
Regulatory References:
1. US FDA Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) (21 CFR 182) [2017]
- § 182.1180 - Caffeine

Safety and Hazards (UN GHS):

1. Toxic if swallowed (H301)
2. Harmful if swallowed (H302)
3. Harmful if inhaled (H332)
4. May damage fertility or the unborn child (H360)
5. Harmful to aquatic life (H402)
6. Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects (H412)

Potential Health Concerns For:

1. Abnormalities, Drug-Induced (PubMed ID:20864626)
2. Abnormalities, Multiple (PubMed ID:20864626)
3. Adrenal Cortex Diseases (PubMed ID:29343424)
4. Aneurysm, Ruptured (PubMed ID:12764233)
5. Anxiety Disorders (PubMed ID:12027348)
6. Aortic Diseases (PubMed ID:12517685)
7. Apnea (PubMed ID:8274820)
8. Arteritis (PubMed ID:8572928)
9. Atrial Fibrillation (PubMed ID:6835272)
10. Atrial Flutter (PubMed ID:6835272)
11. Atrioventricular Block (PubMed ID:10337936)
12. Bipolar Disorder (PubMed ID:12676429)
13. Blindness (PubMed ID:18945799)
14. Bone Demineralization, Pathologic (PubMed ID:19325779)
15. Bone Diseases, Developmental (PubMed ID:31874197)
16. Bone Diseases, Metabolic (PubMed ID:30423288)
17. Brain Edema (PubMed ID:18945799)
18. Breast Neoplasms (PubMed ID:8823059)
19. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell (PubMed ID:4638853)
20. Cardiomyopathies (PubMed ID:17953770)
21. Cardiovascular Diseases (PubMed ID:16184581)
22. Cartilage Diseases (PubMed ID:32663519)
23. Catatonia (PubMed ID:4008454)
24. Cerebral Hemorrhage (PubMed ID:4024187)
25. Cerebral Infarction (PubMed ID:8346703)
26. Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury (PubMed ID:30776459)
27. Chills (PubMed ID:3153710)
28. Cocaine-Related Disorders (PubMed ID:10639687)
29. Colonic Neoplasms (PubMed ID:12706856)
30. Coronary Disease (PubMed ID:12140349)
31. Coronary Vasospasm (PubMed ID:19120009)
32. Death, Sudden (PubMed ID:7915431)
33. Diarrhea (PubMed ID:7217021)
34. Digestive System Abnormalities (PubMed ID:5041373)
35. Disease Models, Animal (PubMed ID:1659560)
36. Dizziness (PubMed ID:9639188)
37. Drug Eruptions (PubMed ID:11792017)
38. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions (PubMed ID:15582667)
39. Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced (PubMed ID:8982660)
40. Edema (PubMed ID:22982570)
41. Embryo Loss (PubMed ID:22898132)
42. Endometriosis (PubMed ID:8823059)
43. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic (PubMed ID:16956868)
44. Fatty Liver (PubMed ID:1659560)
45. Fetal Growth Retardation (PubMed ID:22701600)
46. Fetal Resorption (PubMed ID:5041373)
47. Fetal Weight (PubMed ID:30528684)
48. Fever (PubMed ID:15653753)
49. Fibrocystic Breast Disease (PubMed ID:8823059)
50. Fibrosis (PubMed ID:17994459)
51. Gastrointestinal Diseases (PubMed ID:16184581)
52. Genital Diseases, Female (PubMed ID:18162812)
53. Genital Diseases, Male (PubMed ID:18162812)
54. Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental (PubMed ID:10803761)
55. Growth Disorders (PubMed ID:1995187)
56. Hallucinations (PubMed ID:8767052)
57. Headache (PubMed ID:12395591)
58. Heart Arrest (PubMed ID:19120009)
59. Heart Defects, Congenital (PubMed ID:3719451)
60. Heart Diseases (PubMed ID:7915431)
61. Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular (PubMed ID:3130878)
62. Hematuria (PubMed ID:2240058)
63. Hemorrhage (PubMed ID:15537744)
64. Hepatitis (PubMed ID:11394713)
65. Hepatomegaly (PubMed ID:28108177)
66. Hip Fractures (PubMed ID:8010338)
67. Hydrocephalus (PubMed ID:5041373)
68. Hyperalgesia (PubMed ID:17096081)
69. Hypercholesterolemia (PubMed ID:29800656)
70. Hyperesthesia (PubMed ID:18162812)
71. Hyperkinesis (PubMed ID:15849377)
72. Hyperplasia (PubMed ID:6623345)
73. Hypertension (PubMed ID:10556993)
74. Hypertension, Malignant (PubMed ID:3020089)
75. Hypertension, Renal (PubMed ID:3044993)
76. Hypertensive Encephalopathy (PubMed ID:16956868)
77. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular (PubMed ID:29447158)
78. Hypokalemia (PubMed ID:10337936)
79. Hypothermia (PubMed ID:17096081)
80. Inflammation (PubMed ID:17994459)
81. Kidney Diseases (PubMed ID:1783953)
82. Kidney Neoplasms (PubMed ID:2912549)
83. Kidney Papillary Necrosis (PubMed ID:1203171)
84. Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute (PubMed ID:10803761)
85. Learning Disorders (PubMed ID:10682621)
86. Lens Diseases (PubMed ID:3130878)
87. Long QT Syndrome (PubMed ID:11753270)
88. Lung Injury (PubMed ID:29055810)
89. Lymphatic Diseases (PubMed ID:3130878)
90. Memory Disorders (PubMed ID:10414431)
91. Metabolic Syndrome X (PubMed ID:24321341)
92. Migraine Disorders (PubMed ID:12780761)
93. Motor Skills Disorders (PubMed ID:10682621)
94. Movement Disorders (PubMed ID:17096081)
95. Muscle Cramp (PubMed ID:17679106)
96. Muscle Weakness (PubMed ID:11512607)
97. Muscular Diseases (PubMed ID:20513219)
98. Musculoskeletal Abnormalities (PubMed ID:3130878)
99. Myocardial Infarction (PubMed ID:19120009)
100. Nausea (PubMed ID:2983630)
101. Necrosis (PubMed ID:15537744)
102. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (PubMed ID:19409249)
103. Nephritis, Interstitial (PubMed ID:10803761)
104. Neural Tube Defects (PubMed ID:20641098)
105. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (PubMed ID:24239806)
106. Ocular Hypertension (PubMed ID:9442454)
107. Osteoarthritis (PubMed ID:31874197)
108. Osteoporosis (PubMed ID:19325779)
109. Panic Disorder (PubMed ID:17407170)
110. Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PubMed ID:6872375)
111. Pituitary Neoplasms (PubMed ID:6623345)
112. Placenta Diseases (PubMed ID:5041373)
113. Pneumonia (PubMed ID:29055810)
114. Polyarteritis Nodosa (PubMed ID:6118996)
115. Polyuria (PubMed ID:16184581)
116. Precancerous Conditions (PubMed ID:12824900)
117. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PubMed ID:10682621)
118. Prenatal Injuries (PubMed ID:23774253)
119. Proteinuria (PubMed ID:10803761)
120. Psychomotor Disorders (PubMed ID:1335535)
121. Psychoses, Substance-Induced (PubMed ID:19407709)
122. Pulmonary Edema (PubMed ID:29055810)
123. Restless Legs Syndrome (PubMed ID:690085)
124. Schizophrenia (PubMed ID:690092)
125. Scoliosis (PubMed ID:23774253)
126. Seizures (PubMed ID:10401785)
127. Self Mutilation (PubMed ID:4047283)
128. Sleep Deprivation (PubMed ID:11903856)
129. Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders (PubMed ID:17225163)
130. Sleep Wake Disorders (PubMed ID:12509552)
131. Stomach Diseases (PubMed ID:8876940)
132. Stroke (PubMed ID:14747639)
133. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (PubMed ID:12764233)
134. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome (PubMed ID:10672630)
135. Substance-Related Disorders (PubMed ID:12434259)
136. Syncope (PubMed ID:10337936)
137. Tachycardia (PubMed ID:17953770)
138. Tachycardia, Paroxysmal (PubMed ID:6628226)
139. Tachycardia, Supraventricular (PubMed ID:6628226)
140. Tachycardia, Ventricular (PubMed ID:10337936)
141. Teratogenesis (PubMed ID:22898132)
142. Thyroid cancer, follicular (PubMed ID:12824900)
143. Tic Disorders (PubMed ID:9606246)
144. Tremor (PubMed ID:12044659)
145. Ureteral Neoplasms (PubMed ID:2912549)
146. Urination Disorders (PubMed ID:7217021)
147. Urticaria (PubMed ID:11792017)
148. Ventricular Fibrillation (PubMed ID:11419773)
149. Ventricular Premature Complexes (PubMed ID:18997632)
150. Weight Loss (PubMed ID:30423288)

Potential Health Benefits For:

1. Adenocarcinoma (PubMed ID:17145898)
2. Adenoma (PubMed ID:17145898)
3. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (PubMed ID:15646857)
4. Basal Ganglia Diseases (PubMed ID:18594798)
5. Brain Injuries (PubMed ID:12681001)
6. Cadmium Poisoning (PubMed ID:23099337)
7. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell (PubMed ID:12205293)
8. Catalepsy (PubMed ID:10591873)
9. Cognition Disorders (PubMed ID:20164564)
10. Depressive Disorder (PubMed ID:2085289)
11. Glycosuria (PubMed ID:17994459)
12. Hyperemia (PubMed ID:19496111)
13. Hypotension (PubMed ID:1898434)
14. Infant, Premature, Diseases (PubMed ID:11753270)
15. Insulin Resistance (PubMed ID:10574509)
16. Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental (PubMed ID:24275088)
17. Liver Failure, Acute (PubMed ID:22154906)
18. Liver Neoplasms (PubMed ID:1995187)
19. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental (PubMed ID:24275088)
20. Lung Neoplasms (PubMed ID:17145898)
21. MPTP Poisoning (PubMed ID:20230807)
22. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal (PubMed ID:12706856)
23. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental (PubMed ID:12706856)
24. Mood Disorders (PubMed ID:12457274)
25. Myocardial Ischemia (PubMed ID:2795213)
26. Neoplasms, Experimental (PubMed ID:17188726)
27. Obesity (PubMed ID:10574509)
28. Pain (PubMed ID:12240665)
29. Parkinson Disease (PubMed ID:11456310)
30. Post-Dural Puncture Headache (PubMed ID:12799921)
31. Sarcoma (PubMed ID:10928167)
32. Sarcoma, Ewing (PubMed ID:15675594)
33. Skin Neoplasms (PubMed ID:12205293)
34. Stomach Neoplasms (PubMed ID:7821872)

User Comments:

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